The nominal speed of a network connection, such as Gigabit Ethernet (1G) or 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10G), refers to the maximum data rate under ideal conditions. However, “real-world throughput” the actual speed at which data can be transferred, is often lower due to various factors such as signal degradation, network congestion, and protocol overhead.
1 Gigabit Ethernet (1G): Under ideal conditions, Gigabit Ethernet can theoretically support speeds of up to 1 Gbps. However, the actual, real-world speed will likely be lower. On a wired Ethernet network, you can expect to see real-world speeds of around 700-900 Mbps due to protocol overhead and other factors.
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10G): Again, under ideal conditions, this can support speeds of up to 10 Gbps. But due to similar reasons, real-world speeds are typically lower. If your infrastructure is well-configured and designed, you may see speeds ranging from a few gigabits per second up to near-ideal throughput.
When it comes to Wireless networks, the real-world speeds are significantly lower than their nominal speeds due to additional factors such as interference from other wireless devices, signal strength, distance from the router, and the type of wireless protocol being used (for example, Wi-Fi 5 vs Wi-Fi 6). For instance, a high-end wireless router might claim to support speeds of up to 1 Gbps, but the actual speed you get could be much less, typically in the range of 100-300 Mbps under good conditions.
Remember, these are just rough estimates, and actual speeds can vary significantly based on numerous factors. For the most accurate measurements, it’s best to test the network speed under normal operating conditions using a reliable network speed test tool.